RAR Password Unlocker 5.1 ##HOT## Crack
RAR Password Recovery Magic is an application created to help you reveal your lost RAR archives passwords. RAR Password Recovery Magic supports the customizable brute-force and dictionary-based attacks. RAR Password Recovery Magic has an easy to use interface. All you need to do to recover your password is just to add your file to the operation window.
RAR Password Unlocker 5.1 Crack
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I use a 80-character long randomly generated alphanumeric (A-Za-z0-9) password to encrypt the secret file. The zip utility does not accept passwords any longer. Trying to do so results in the (line too long--try again) error.
It is well known that a random 128-bit secret is plenty of entropy to not be cracked, even if it is protected by the fastest possible (but not vulnerable) hashing algorithm. The reason I bring hashing up is because there is a lot of research into, good software for, and a lot of benchmarks for password hash cracking. Decrypting a zip file is basically doing the decrypt operation and checking if you can decrypt a byte of which you know what the value should be. (See section 6.1 of the zip format specification, or the Python implementation.) The only speed indication regarding the cracking of zip files on a GPU is a marketing claim of 10 billion attempts per second. This is mention in some small, grey text with no reference or any more information about their setup. It's a data point to consider, but not a very reliable one. Hashing is similar to this in that hashing algorithms are designed to be very fast, and you also apply some operation and check the result.
For example, MD5 crackers can reach hundreds of billions of attempts per second on moderately expensive hardware. Let's use this as our basis rather than the 10 billion marketing claim, since we don't know what year that was or what setup they used.
If you want to play it risky, you could go for a password containing about 80 bits of entropy, and an attacker would have a small (but non-negligible) chance of cracking it. More realistically, you would want to have some margin of error, also in case the encryption algorithm is weakened. I would advise to stick with 128 bits of entropy as a good idea. This also matches what a research project by the European Union concludes: "For general long-term protection (30 years), 128 bit keys are recommended (level 7)." (Source: me on Wikipedia)
If we use a-z, A-Z, 0-9, then each position of your password can have 26+26+10 = 62 possible values. To compute how many characters we need for 128 bits, we can use: log(10^128*log(2))/log(62) = 21.5 characters (because log(62^21.5)/log(2) = 128).
Answer: 22 randomly generated characters, consisting of the characters A through Z, a through z, and 0 through 9. Example: M89bqltyuPQ0g34Uv2CR6b. No need for an 80-character password like you suggested!
If you are worried about quantum computers, use software that only uses symmetric encryption algorithms and hashing algorithms of at least 256 bits (so your key should contain that much entropy, and the software must use it), such as AES-256 and SHA-256. Depending on which implementation you use, zip might qualify: according to the specification, format version 5.1 adds support for AES-256. The original encryption is symmetric encryption and will not break as catastrophically as asymmetric encryption would, but it uses too short keys. While a quantum computer will weaken symmetric encryption and hashing algorithms, Grover's algorithm tells us that it is basically in the order of halving the number of bits, so a password containing 256 bits of entropy today will, for a quantum computer, be as strong as a password containing 128 bits of entropy.
(Note that you should also apply good password management: don't reuse the password elsewhere or other things that people commonly do wrong with passwords. But how to manage your passwords is out of scope for this answer.)
What is the minimum entropy that a password should have to make it secure enough to be used with the zip utility? To define "secure enough", say, the zip file should remain uncracked for 10 or so years.
In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system in scrambled form. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to repeatedly try guesses for the password and to check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password. Another type of approach is password spraying, which is often automated and occurs slowly over time in order to remain undetected, using a list of common passwords.
The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (due to the fact that installing an entirely new password would involve System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or to act as a preventive measure whereby system administrators check for easily crackable passwords. On a file-by-file basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence to which a judge has allowed access, when a particular file's permissions restricted.
The time to crack a password is related to bit strength .mw-parser-output div.crossreferencepadding-left:0.mw-parser-output .hatnotefont-style:italic.mw-parser-output div.hatnotepadding-left:1.6em;margin-bottom:0.5em.mw-parser-output .hatnote ifont-style:normal.mw-parser-output .hatnote+link+.hatnotemargin-top:-0.5em(see Password cracking), which is a measure of the password's entropy, and the details of how the password is stored. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds. With multiple processors, this time can be optimized through searching from the last possible group of symbols and the beginning at the same time, with other processors being placed to search through a designated selection of possible passwords. More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be attempted before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood that the password will be found in any cracking dictionary.
The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions per second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, either by time delays, CAPTCHAs, or forced lockouts after some number of failed attempts. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password successfully decodes encrypted data.
For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools (see John the Ripper benchmarks). The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated 30-bit strength, according to NIST. 230 is only one billion permutations and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing function were naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended. In 2002, distributed.net successfully found a 64-bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included over 300,000 different computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second.
Graphics processing units can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to 100 over general purpose computers for specific hashing algorithms. As of 2011, available commercial products claim the ability to test up to 2,800,000,000 passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor. Such a device can crack a 10-letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs. However some algorithms run slowly, or even are specifically designed to run slowly, on GPUs. Examples are DES, Triple DES, bcrypt, scrypt, and Argon2.
The emergence over the past decade[when?] of hardware acceleration in a GPU has enabled resources to be used to increase the efficiency and speed of a brute force attack for most hashing algorithms. In 2012, Stricture Consulting Group unveiled a 25-GPU cluster that achieved a brute force attack speed of 350 billion guesses per second, allowing them to check 95 8 \textstyle 95^8 password combinations in 5.5 hours. Using ocl-Hashcat Plus on a Virtual OpenCL cluster platform, the Linux-based GPU cluster was used to "crack 90 percent of the 6.5 million password hashes belonging to users of LinkedIn." 041b061a72